Less Than 1,000 Days Until the Next Total Solar Eclipse in the United States

On Monday, August 21, 2017, a total solar eclipse will be visible in some areas of the United States. This is now less than 1,000 days away. The event has been a long time coming. While the last total solar eclipse to be seen in the United States occurred in 1991, that event was limited to Hawaii. Before that, the last solar eclipse visible from the continental United States was on February 26, 1979.

While the 1979 event tracked across Oregon, Washington and Montana, people in 12 states will see the 2017 event. Both eclipses started in Oregon. The earlier one then tracked up into Canada. The 2017 eclipse starts in Oregon, travels across the central United States before finishing far out to sea beyond South Carolina.

A total solar eclipse is a rather rare occurrence. Estimates place the likelihood of any point on Earth experiencing one only every 400 years. This is not absolute, however. Several Oregon locations saw the 1979 eclipse and they will see the 2017 event as well. For them, experiencing two solar eclipses in a little more than 35 years is quite unusual. Closer yet are the cities of Carbondale, Illinois, and Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Residents there will see the 2017 eclipse as well as another in April, 2024. This separation of less than seven years for these two eclipses is very unusual. Of course, it may be hundreds of years before these cities see another.

To be a total eclipse, the moon must completely obscure the sun, for an observer standing on Earth. This can occur monthly, at New Moon. Ordinarily, however, the moon passes either above, or below, the sun’s position, as viewed from Earth. As a result, the moon’s shadow normally sweeps across open space. On rare occasions, as the moon passes directly in front of the sun, a shadow is cast upon the surface of the Earth. If the sun is partially obscured, a partial eclipse results. If the sun is completely obscured, a total solar eclipse occurs. The moon is much smaller than the sun, of course. In fact, the moon is some 400 times smaller. In an astronomical twist, the moon is also 400 times closer to the Earth. This makes the apparent size of the moon very close to the apparent size of the sun. When the moon passes directly in front of the sun, it is able to completely eclipse the sun, for some viewers on Earth.

The shadow cast by the moon, however, is very small. Depending on the distance between the Earth and the moon, which varies somewhat, the moon’s shadow will darken a strip of Earth about 70 miles wide. This strip is called the Zone of Totality. Those people located within this zone will experience a total solar eclipse. Those near, but outside, will see a partial solar eclipse.

On August 21, 2017, the sun is eclipsed for as much as 2 minutes and 40 seconds at the maximum point. Hopkinsville, Kentucky happens to be located at this point. People not located there may see a shorter eclipse duration. Those located outside the zone of totality will only see a partial eclipse. Some cities that will experience totality include Nashville, Tennessee, Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri. The 2017 eclipse will potentially be seen by millions of people located across the United States.

Each total solar eclipse is unique, but there are similarities. The Earth will darken over time as the moon obscures more and more of the sun. This is the partial eclipse phase. As totality approaches, the amount of sunlight striking the Earth will be greatly diminished. The sky will become similar to twilight. Colors normally seen at sunset will be visible during the day. Birds, animals and insects will be fooled into believing that night is falling. Some will return to their nests or roosts. Nocturnal creatures will begin to emerge. These effects often happen even if a total solar eclipse occurs early in the morning. After totality ends, another partial eclipse phase occurs until the moon passes beyond the sun’s location.

The biggest factor that cannot be predicted with certainty is the weather on August 21, 2017. Cloudy weather could obscure the eclipse for interested observers. As a result, many people examine historical weather patterns in order to determine prime eclipse viewing locations. Since the 2017 event occurs in August, there are some rather promising weather possibilities. In Oregon, the August weather tends to be sunny and dry, perfect eclipse conditions. Morning fog, storms, or clouds, could thwart eclipse viewers, however.

Idaho and Wyoming residents will also experience the 2017 eclipse. The weather in these states could allow a very good eclipse viewing experience. The eclipse occurs fairly early in the day, lessening the possibility of localized thunderstorms.

As the total solar eclipse tracks across more states, from Nebraska to South Carolina, the possibility of inclement weather increases. These locations will experience the eclipse later in the day. Afternoon storms, or hazy weather, could be encountered. Such weather could limit the eclipse experience.

Many US cities have already begun planning for the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse. The event represents an opportunity to entertain tens of thousands of visitors to cities located within the zone of totality. With proper attention to details, cities can provide a favorable eclipse experience that also highlights the attractions of the local area. Weather permitting, of course.

Bonus Facts:

– the distance from the Earth to the moon increases each year. In less than 1.5 billion years, the moon will not be close enough to produce total solar eclipses. After that, only partial or annular eclipses will occur.

– when the moon eclipses the sun, the sky darkens enough to allow planets and bright stars to be seen in the daytime. On August 21, 2017, the bright star Rigel should be visible low in the south. – Albert Einstein predicted that a total solar eclipse could provide direct proof of the General Theory of Relativity. He postulated that the eclipsed sun would cause light to be bent, for an observer on Earth. This would be proved as stars located behind the sun would appear to be shifted in location. This visual evidence was demonstrated during an eclipse in 1919.

– as the moon passes in front of the sun, it blocks enough sunlight that the solar corona, the super heated atmosphere, becomes visible to people on Earth. The shape of the corona is different during each eclipse as it is influenced by the level of magnetic solar storms, which constantly changes.

– ancient civilizations did not understand the science responsible for total solar eclipses. Eclipses were attributed to supernatural causes and thought to be bad omens.

– the theoretical maximum duration of a total solar eclipse is about 7 minutes. The 2017 eclipse is less than half this duration, at 2 minutes, 40 seconds for those located in Hopkinsville, Kentucky.

– the sun is not safe to view during any portion of the partial eclipse phase. Even if only 1% of the sun is visible, observers risk damage to their eyes through direct observation. At this eclipse stage, the sun appears to be dim enough to view. Unfortunately, the lit portion still transmits full force sunlight to the optic nerve. Because the level of light is so much lower than normal, the observer feels no urge to avert their gaze. Moreover, the optic nerve does not contain pain receptors so victims are unaware that their eyesight is being damaged. Proper eye protection is vital for all observers of the partial solar eclipse phase.

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Science Research Funding Under A Trump Administration – What Will Happen?

Right after Donald Trump won the presidency, scientists and researchers got together to stage a large protest with signs and marched on Washington DC to make their case for research funding fearing that academia would be cut off from those 10s of billions of dollars in money flows to themselves and their institutions. Apparently, academia is worried their gravy train will end, and maybe they are right – but protesting won’t work. Academia is already in serious challenges due to the outstanding college loan debt default rates. Is this a perfect storm for science? Let’s look at this a little closer shall we?

There was an interesting article in Scientific American in the January/February 2017 issue titled; “Ending the Crisis of Complacency in Science – To survive the Trump administration, scientists need to invest in a strategic vision that mobilizes social change,” by Matthew Nisbet which stated:

“As newly elected president Donald Trump takes office, the scientific community faces the likelihood not only of unprecedented cuts in government funding for research, but also of bold new attacks on scientific expertise as a basis for policy making and decisions. Trump campaigned on a pledge to eliminate as much as $100 million in ‘wasteful climate change spending’ and there have been reports of plans to severely cut funding for NASA and other agencies.” The article also talked about the NIH funding of Stem Cells and how they might turn back to the Bush years on that type of science funding. There was a point in the piece about the need for scientists to do better with PR and media so the tax paying public would be more supportive. In fact the author of the article suggested better cooperation with journalists was important to change the narrative to continue climate research funding.

Interestingly enough, the NIH and NSF and other big research funders are under the executive branch of our Federal Government. Academia is worried because they chose the wrong political side and academia had brain-washed our kids towards a leftist, socialist skew – they are in fear now, but they’ve allowed that academic bubble to build – academia has caused their own demise, with their High IQ’s they still don’t see it. What do I think of this as the founder of a Think Tank?

Well, here is my assessment; My gosh, that article was so out-of-touch with the new political landscape. In fact, Donald Trump’s Administration is a breath of fresh air for science, and he’s about the only one who can save scientific research and academia from their current path towards a cliff.

Sure there will be cuts in all the ‘politically correct research’ that many in academia are now calling “science” and yes there will be cuts in Global Warming research – after all, it is academia that continues to go with that IPCC globalist narrative that climate science; it’s “settled” by consensus (what?). The climate scientists hypocrisy is epic – you see, if it is settled then there doesn’t need to be anymore science research there, we already know right? Now then, we have to determine if we should act on that research or not to cut human emissions of CO2 (which by the way is only 3% of the total CO2 output of this trace gas). Academia can’t have it both ways and say it is settled, because if it is then there is no need to keep funding their incredible PhD level academic salaries then. Let them find something else to study or get a new line of work.

Sure there will cuts to BS science and waste – there is a ton of it, admit it. I see the grants being awarded by the NSF, NIH, and some of that crap is a waste. With the Trump Administration – the good science stays and the crap goes – there will be plenty of money and research for GOOD science. Academia will have to adapt, just like businesses do. Remember it was one of theirs who said; “Change is the only constant” so they will have to deal with it. No more sniveling.

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Private Jet Detailing And Aircraft Cleaning Entrepreneurs Have Good News

The general aviation sector has been in the doldrums for quite a while. Some blame this on increased FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) regulations, much of which occurred after 9-11 to protect airports from potential terrorists, unfortunately these increased security requirements and increased regulations have stifled the general aviation (GA) sector. The economic crashes of 2000 and 2008 didn’t help, although in 2003 the economy was flying high thanks to Bush Tax Cuts and stimulus, then it hit a wall again and didn’t really do well until the run-up just before the 2008 crash.

The GA sector has only slightly recovered since then but not back to its 2003 highs. When Obama got elected he railed against Corporate Jets and Corporate Fat Cats which hurt jet sales and new aircraft sales. Remember when congress went after the Auto Makers for flying their corporate jets to Washington DC to beg for bailouts? Public sentiment against GA was at an all-time low. All of this had hurt aircraft cleaners and jet detailers – it made it tough to make money, but it looks like things are changing and the number of GA Aircraft is increasing. This new Trump Administration is pro-Aviation unlike the Obama Administration. Cutting corporate taxes will also help GA and jet sales. It looks like clear skies ahead for those in the General Aviation services business.

There was a great article in AIN – Aircraft International News – December Edition titled; “UBS Bizjet Index Sees Post-election Surge,” by Chad Trautvetter posted on December 12, 2016 which noted the following facts; The new Trump Administration in the U.S. is widely seen as a positive, with 61 percent of those surveyed expecting the outcome of the U.S. presidential election to ultimately be positive for the business jet market, while 11 percent don’t see a positive impact and 28 percent are uncertain. In fact the article went on to note that there was an increase of between 44-49% increased orders for private jets over last year. Many of those aircraft will be delivered by 2018, and the backlog will increase used aircraft sales and current new inventory. More aircraft certainly means more aircraft to clean and more new aircraft means more corporate detailing customers as well. Meanwhile, along with the fractional jet market, we see jet air-taxi services on the increase as well as Uber style aircraft ride-sharing plans smaller companies can buy into. All of this means the GA sector is ready to take off again and that’s good for business.

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Whither the World’s Fair?

The moniker “Expo 2017” is currently being bandied about in North America. In the US, various optimists, often plain vanilla citizens like you and me, have launched web sites and forums promoting a return of the world’s fair–or Expo 2017 in this case–to America. In Canada, at least four cites and/or organizations have recently promoted the idea of an “expo”, with one of the first efforts publicly unveiled in Montreal in 2007.

In America, the idea of a world’s fair–an officially sanctioned one, that is, will conceivably remain a distant dream until Washington comes to its diplomatic senses and rejoins the Bureau of International Expositions, or BIE–the governing body in Paris which awards world’s fairs in much the same fashion as the IOC decides who gets to hold the next Olympic Games. Just like the Olympics, an aspiring world’s fair applicant is required to invest a considerable amount of energy and expense putting together a bid, and, of course, impressing the appropriate officials. Unless, perhaps, you’re the city of New York which, after a clash with French dignitaries, decided to hold its 1964/1965 World’s Fair without BIE approval. At the time, superpower America had enough clout that many of the nations who were subsequently prohibited by the BIE from participating decided to show up anyway, posing as trade and tourist organizations.

Right after New York, and only a skip across the border, the city of Montreal staged what is often considered to be the most successful (and BIE approved) world’s fair of all time. Set on a sprawling venue of two man-made islands and a peninsula in the middle of the Saint Lawrence River, Expo 67 introduced a number of technological and cultural “firsts”–including the now ubiquitous moniker “expo” itself.

There are “expos” for everything now, from computers to kitty litter, while the mighty world’s fair that spawned these cheap imitations hasn’t been seen in North America for decades. Even if a city here managed to secure an official bid for “Expo 2017” it would be for a much smaller affair, a “recognized” expo limited by the BIE to 25 hectares exhibition area. That’s because there have always been two types of world’s fairs, a very large one (a “universal expo”) and, in-between, a smaller one (a “special expo”)–both of which are now, respectively, called “registered” and “recognized” fairs. In 2017, unfortunately, only the smaller recognized expo is allowed.

Nevertheless, I would argue that the world’s fair not only needs a major boost in North America, but that North America desperately needs another world’s fair. No other event has the collective potential to attract a huge audience to the latest cultural and scientific endeavours humankind has to offer. With our planet in the precarious state we have put it in, and North America no longer as influential and respected as it used to be, a world’s fair, properly staged and presented with the latest social and environmental initiatives, could be the political and technological beacon of hope this continent is yearning for. Of course, that might mean that Expo 2017 would need to encompass a great deal more than 25 hectares exhibition area and would need to address a lot more than the narrowly restricted theme (the fair’s purpose) officially allowed by the BIE for a smaller “recognized” expo. This could be done, with a little creative thinking (and without resorting to New York’s 1964 strategy), but that’s for another article to address.

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How Does the Ford GT Stack Up?

How will it compare to the competition?

The GT is by no means a Shelby GT 350 R, not even close. Besides the over $350,000 jump in price and the additional 100 or more horsepower. The new GT is even more track-focused then the previous ones. And the mid-engine layout, combined with the GT’s carbon-fiber construction it much more than a muscle car and more of a Super car.

Even though Ford has not decided on a specific horse power, the new GT with 3.5-liter twin-turbo V6 will produce more than 600 horsepower. Standing up well to the Corvette Z 06 and its’ 650 horses. Now Ford says it is working on the power-to-weight ratios to be the best of any production car. Even if they can’t hit the ratio of the Koenigsegg One with its 2.2 lbs / hp and make it to the range of the McLauren P1 with its 3.5 lbs / hp. Even with its aerodynamics the approx. 3500-lb Corvette Z06 may be a little overweight to held ground with the new GT Priced like a Lamborghini Aventador

Knowing it’s expected price range points to the real competition of the new 2017 GT. Granted the Lamborghini Aventador is packing 691 horse power, but outweighing the Corvette Z06 in curb weight by another 500 pounds, it may have a hard time keeping up with the new GT on the track. When you consider the Aventador holds twice the cylinders as the GT’s twin-turbo V6, and the fact that the Aventador is a naturally aspirated V12 all wheel drive, you can expect it to be faster off the line.

It will be interesting to see how the GT compares to the McLaren 657LT the car that feels like a competition vehicle. Weighing in at less than 3000 lbs, the 657 is pretty light, but the GT will probably weigh less. The Mc Laren 675LT is also a limited-production car, with only 500 units slated to built and cost about $50,000 less than the Lamborghini.

Then there is the Ferrari F12tdf with a price point just under $500,000 with a substantial increase in power. Touting a 6.3-liter V12 with 770 horsepower hitting 0 to 60 in under 3 seconds. The Ferrari will be a head over the GT by more than 100 horsepower, but the based on Fords claims the GT should be much more light weight. With Ford skipping a hybrid-electric system, it will be something to pit the new and severely less expensive Acura NSX with its hybrid tech and all-wheel drive against the new GT and its focus on light weight. With the NSX and its 573 horsepower will it be enough to hold its own against the GT? Time will tell.

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